Apache Libcloud

Apache Libcloud is an API wrapper around a range of cloud storage providers. It aims to provide a consistent API for dealing with cloud storage (and, more broadly, the many other services provided by cloud providers, such as device provisioning, load balancer configuration, and DNS configuration).

As of v0.10.1, Libcloud supports the following cloud storage providers:

Libcloud can also be configured with relatively little effort to support any provider using EMC Atmos storage, or the OpenStack API.



This setting is required to configure connections to cloud storage providers. Each entry corresponds to a single ‘bucket’ of storage. You can have multiple buckets for a single service provider (e.g., multiple S3 buckets), and you can define buckets at multiple providers. For example, the following configuration defines 3 providers: two buckets (bucket-1 and bucket-2) on a US-based Amazon S3 store, and a third bucket (bucket-3) on Google:

    'amazon_1': {
        'type': 'libcloud.storage.types.Provider.S3_US_STANDARD_HOST',
        'user': '<your username here>',
        'key': '<your key here>',
        'bucket': 'bucket-1',
    'amazon_2': {
        'type': 'libcloud.storage.types.Provider.S3_US_STANDARD_HOST',
        'user': '<your username here>',
        'key': '<your key here>',
        'bucket': 'bucket-2',
    'google': {
        'type': 'libcloud.storage.types.Provider.GOOGLE_STORAGE',
        'user': '<Your Google APIv1 username>',
        'key': '<Your Google APIv1 Key>',
        'bucket': 'bucket-3',

The values for the type, user and key arguments will vary depending on your storage provider:

Amazon S3:

type: libcloud.storage.types.Provider.S3_US_STANDARD_HOST,

user: Your AWS access key ID

key: Your AWS secret access key

If you want to use a availability zone other than the US default, you can use one of S3_US_WEST_HOST, S3_US_WEST_OREGON_HOST, S3_EU_WEST_HOST, S3_AP_SOUTHEAST_HOST, or S3_AP_NORTHEAST_HOST instead of S3_US_STANDARD_HOST.

Google Cloud Storage:

type: libcloud.storage.types.Provider.GOOGLE_STORAGE,

user: Your Google APIv1 username (20 characters)

key: Your Google APIv1 key


type: libcloud.storage.types.Provider.NIMBUS,

user: Your Nimbus.io user ID

key: Your Nimbus.io access key

Ninefold Cloud Storage:

type: libcloud.storage.types.Provider.NINEFOLD,

user: Your Atmos Access Token

key: Your Atmos Shared Secret

Rackspace Cloudfiles:

type: libcloud.storage.types.Provider.CLOUDFIULES_US or libcloud.storage.types.Provider.CLOUDFIULES_UK,

user: Your Rackspace user ID

key: Your Rackspace access key

You can specify any bucket name you want; however, the bucket must exist before you can start using it. If you need to create the bucket, you can use the storage API. For example, to create bucket-1 from our previous example:

>>> from storages.backends.apache_libcloud import LibCloudStorage
>>> store = LibCloudStorage('amazon_1')
>>> store.driver.create_container('bucket-1')


Once you have defined your Libcloud providers, you have the option of setting one provider as the default provider of Libcloud storage. This is done setting DEFAULT_LIBCLOUD_PROVIDER to the key in LIBCLOUD_PROVIDER that you want to use as the default provider. For example, if you want the amazon-1 provider to be the default provider, use:


If DEFAULT_LIBCLOUD_PROVIDER isn’t set, the Libcloud backend will assume that the default storage backend is named default. Therefore, you can avoid settings DEFAULT_LIBCLOUD_PROVIDER by simply naming one of your Libcloud providers default:

    'default': {
        'type': ...


If you want your Libcloud storage to be the default Django file store, you can set:

DEFAULT_FILE_STORAGE = 'storages.backends.apache_libcloud.LibCloudStorage'

Your default Libcloud provider will be used as the file store.

Certifcate authorities

Libcloud uses HTTPS connections, and in order to validate that these HTTPS connections are correctly signed, root CA certificates must be present. On some platforms (most notably, OS X and Windows), the required certificates may not be available by default. To test

>>> from storages.backends.apache_libcloud import LibCloudStorage
>>> store = LibCloudStorage('amazon_1')
Traceback (most recent call last):
ImproperlyConfigured: Unable to create libcloud driver type libcloud.storage.types.Provider.S3_US_STANDARD_HOST: No CA Certificates were found in CA_CERTS_PATH.

If you get this error, you need to install a certificate authority. Download a certificate authority file, and then put the following two lines into your settings.py:

import libcloud.security